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CRISPR-Cas9的原理及其应用进展
杨佳儒1,2,3
1.(1)昆明医科大学生物化学与分子生物学系;2.2)科学技术处;3)病原生物学与免疫学系,云南 昆明 650500)
摘要:
[摘要]CRISPR-Cas9技术是近年来发展迅速的一项基因定点修饰技术.该技术基于规律性短重复回文序列簇(clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat, CRISPR)和Cas9核酸酶(CRISPR associated system9,Cas9)构成的CRISPR-Cas9系统而形成.CRISPR-Cas9系统是广泛存在于细菌和古生菌中的一种免疫机制.因为该机制可通过特异结合并剪切DNA片段的方式,有效帮助菌体抵御包括噬菌体和质粒在内的一系列外源性DNA侵染.故而近年来受到很多研究人员的关注,并被大量用于基因的定点修饰.目前该技术已经成功应用于多种生物基因修饰与治疗.多项研究结果表明该技术较其他同类技术具有明显的高效性、准确性,对基因工程有着极大的促进作用和广泛的应用前景.对该技术原理及应用进展进行综述.
关键词:  [关键词]CRISPR-Cas9  原理  应用  综述
DOI:
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基金项目:[基金项目]国家自然科学基金资助项目(81060134,81371835);云南省自然科学基金资助项目(2010CD221,2011FB244,2012FB011,2013FZ057,2014FA011,2014FB001)
Principle and Application Progress of CRISPR-Cas9
YANG Jia-ru1,2,3
1.(1)Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology;2.2)Dept. of Science and Technology;3.3)Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology,Kunming Medical University,Kunming Yunnan 650500,China)
Abstract:
[Abstract]Recently,a fast developing new technology for gene modification named as CRISPR-Cas9 which based on CRISPR-Cas9 system composed of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat(CRISPR) and Cas9 nuclease(CRISPR associated system 9,Cas9)has been developed. CRISPR-Cas9 system is a kind of immune mechanism widely found in bacteria and archaea. This mechanism can help bacteria and archaea against exogenous DNA by the approach of specifically breaking DNA. Later,this mechanism was found to be useful for gene modification and gene deletion. At present, this technology has been applied to gene modification and therapy. Many studies have shown that the technology,compared with other genetic technology,has higher efficiency and accuracy,and it has promoted genetic engineering progress. Summarized here is the principle and application advance of CRISPR-Cas9.
Key words:  [Key words]CRISPR-Cas9  Principle  Application progress  Review